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Belegte Informationssammlung über die politische Lage und Entwicklung in Venezuela über die letzten Jahre. Beginn war die Verhaftung von Steyci und Gilber. The best radio app for listening to music, online radio stations and FM radio stations in Venezuela for internet! The Radio Venezuela application allows you to​. -Noticias de Venezuela y el mundo -Monitor de Dolar Venezuela -Tasa de día dolar Venezuela -Actualidad -Señal en vivo VPI -Vídeo Noticia. Die Versorgung war kostenlos, die Medikamente wurden vom Staat zur Verfügung gestellt. Die Medizinstationen werden aus einem Baukastenset errichtet, das. Venezuela's Supreme Court has ordered a travel ban on the opposition leader Juan Guaido and frozen his bank accounts. Guaido is banned from leaving the.

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Free Venezuela. likes. Clothing (Brand). Belegte Informationssammlung über die politische Lage und Entwicklung in Venezuela über die letzten Jahre. Beginn war die Verhaftung von Steyci und Gilber. Benzin ist seit jeher in. Venezuela theoretisch praktisch gratis, weshalb ein substanzieller Anteil des für den Binnenkonsum vorgesehenen.

Further information: Crisis in Venezuela. Main article: Geography of Venezuela. View of the tepuis, Kukenan and Roraima , in the Gran Sabana.

Canaima National Park. Tepuis are among the attractions of the park, these mountains are among the oldest exposed formations on the planet.

Main article: Climate of Venezuela. See also: Environmental issues in Venezuela. Main article: Foreign relations of Venezuela.

Main articles: Law of Venezuela and Crime in Venezuela. Murder rate murder per , citizens from to Main article: Corruption in Venezuela.

Main articles: States of Venezuela and Regions of Venezuela. Nueva Esparta. Delta Amacuro. Federal Dependencies. Trinidad and Tobago. Caribbean Sea.

Atlantic Ocean. Largest cities or towns in Venezuela []. Main article: List of metropolitan areas in Venezuela. Main article: Economy of Venezuela.

Main article: Tourism in Venezuela. Main article: Shortages in Venezuela. See also: History of the Venezuelan oil industry and Energy policy of Venezuela.

Main article: Transport in Venezuela. Main article: Demographics of Venezuela. Further information: List of metropolitan areas in Venezuela.

Moreno Mestizo population of Venezuela in White population of Venezuela in Amerindian population of Venezuela in Black and Afrodescendant population of Venezuela in Main article: Languages of Venezuela.

Main article: Religion in Venezuela. Main article: Culture of Venezuela. Main article: Venezuelan art.

Main article: Venezuelan literature. Main article: Music of Venezuela. Main article: Sport in Venezuela. See also: Baseball in Venezuela and Football in Venezuela.

Main article: Venezuelan cuisine. Main article: Education in Venezuela. Deaths of children under one year in Venezuela according to the Ministry of Popular Power for Health [].

Retrieved 8 September El Centro Gumilla. Archived from the original PDF on 24 September Retrieved 5 April United Nations General Assembly.

Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 25 May International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 20 October United Nations Development Programme.

United Nations. Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 9 December Ministry of Education. Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 19 March Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 13 March World Urbanization Prospects: The Revision.

Wharton Public Policy Initiative. Retrieved 16 May While indicators of income and consumption showed clear progress, the harder-to-change characteristics of structural poverty and inequality, such as the quality of housing, neighborhoods, education, and employment, remained largely unchanged.

Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable. Center for Economic and Policy Research. The World Bank. Likewise, inequality has decreased, reducing the Gini Index from 0.

Retrieved 22 May El Pais. Retrieved 3 February Retrieved 9 October Cannon, Barry 21 June The Myth of a United Venezuela". Bulletin of Latin American Research.

Aalgaard, Wendy Venezuela in Pictures. Lerner Pub Group. Aponte, Pedro Rafael University of Pittsburgh.

Retrieved 2 July Chasteen, John Charles Cumpliendo las metas del milenio PDF in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Coronil, Fernando The magical state: nature, money, and modernity in Venezuela.

University of Chicago Press. Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications.

Retrieved 30 June Crow, JA Epic of Latin America. University of California Press. Dickey, John Marcus Retrieved 1 July Dydynski, Krzysztof; Beech, Charlotte Lonely Planet Publications.

Ewell, Judith Venezuela: A Century of Change. Fichner-Ratus, Lois Understanding Art 10th ed. Cengage Learning.

Gibson, Karen Bush Venezuela: A Question and Answer Book. Gott, Richard Gregory, Desmond British American Press.

Heritage, Andrew December Financial Times World Desk Reference. Dorling Kindersley. Josza Jr. Scarecrow Press. Kelly, Janet; Palma, Perdo A.

In McCoy, Jennifer L. The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela. Johns Hopkins University Press. Kipfer, Barbara Ann In Goumbri, Olivia Burlingame ed.

Washington, D. McBeth, B. Cambridge University Press. McCaughan, Michael The Battle of Venezuela. Seven Stories Press.

Ng, Yumi Welcome to Venezuela. Gareth Stevens Publishing. Salas, Miguel Tinker Oxford University Press. Stoan, Stephen K.

Pablo Morillo and Venezuela, — Ohio State University Press. Tarver, H. Michael; Frederick, Julia C. The History of Venezuela.

Palgrave Macmillan. Thomas, Hugh Random House. Wardrope, William Warhol, Tom Marshall Cavendish. Wunder, Sven Oil wealth and the fate of the forest: a comparative study of eight tropical countries.

Yergin, Daniel Simon and Schuster. Zakaria, Fareed From Wealth to Power. Princeton University Press. Zamora, Margarita Reading Columbus.

Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 23 April Lander, Edgardo April Venezuela at Wikipedia's sister projects. Outline Index.

Administrative divisions of Venezuela. Guayana Esequiba. World Heritage Sites in Venezuela. Links to related articles. Countries and dependencies of South America.

France French Guiana. Andean Community of Nations. Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru. Mexico Panama. Arab League. Arab League Lists.

South Sudan. Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela suspended. Mexico New Zealand. Citizenship Vehicle registration plates. European Union.

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The number of fixed telephone lines per inhabitants was 7. The number increased to By , this had increased to 6,, In July , President Maduro announced that a third satellite would be built by Chinese—Venezuelan bilateral cooperation.

Media related to Economy of Venezuela at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National economic overview. Plaza Venezuela in Caracas.

Fixed exchange rates. Fiscal year. Agriculture : 4. Inflation CPI. Population below poverty line. Gini coefficient.

Human Development Index. Communal, social and personal services: Ease-of-doing-business rank. FDI stock.

Current account. Gross external debt. Public debt. Budget balance. Credit rating. In , Venezuela had the highest annual inflation in the world Venezuela is the country colored pink in northern South America.

Venezuela's historic inflation rate beside annual oil revenues. Main articles: Crisis in Venezuela , —present economic crisis in Venezuela , and Hyperinflation in Venezuela.

Play media. See also: Energy policy of Venezuela. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September Main article: Agriculture in Venezuela.

Main article: Energy in Venezuela. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

Main article: Education in Venezuela. Main article: Health care in Venezuela. Money portal. The data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, some debt issued by subnational entities as well as intragovernmental debt which consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds such as for retirement, medical care and unemployment.

Some debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions. Retrieved 22 May World Bank. Retrieved 6 October International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 20 April Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 5 February El Nacional in Spanish.

Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 18 August The Observatory of Economic Complexity.

Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 10 March Fitch Ratings. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 27 April Department of State.

Retrieved 29 October The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May El ocaso del chavismo: Venezuela Retrieved 6 April Societe Generale, Import Export solutions in French.

Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 19 June Les principaux clients du Venezuela sont la Chine, l'Inde et Singapour.

The Economist. Retrieved 18 February Financial Times. Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 18 July Foreign Policy.

Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 17 January BBC News. New York:Simon and Schuster. The Battle of Venezuela. New York: Seven Stories Press.

London: Latin America Bureau. Financial Times World Desk Reference. Dorling Kindersley. Retrieved 16 August The Guardian.

Retrieved 7 February Brookings Institution Press. Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 19 August Retrieved 15 December Bloomberg Businessweek.

Retrieved 3 September El Universal. Retrieved 30 April Cato Institute. Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 21 November International Finance Corporation.

Archived from the original PDF on 30 May Retrieved 1 April The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 21 February The Boston Globe.

Retrieved 17 May Associated Press. Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 22 February Retrieved 15 March Investors Business Daily.

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For example: websites, social media, blogs, ebooks, newsletters, etc. For example: books, clothing, flyers, posters, invitations, publicity, etc.

Online video platforms Youtube, Vimeo, etc. Venezuela is a developing country and ranks 96th on the Human Development Index.

It has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. Previously, the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa , but oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues.

The excesses and poor policies of the incumbent government led to the collapse of Venezuela's entire economy. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan migrant crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.

According to the most popular and accepted version, in , an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast.

Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word. Evidence exists of human habitation in the area now known as Venezuela from about 15, years ago.

Leaf -shaped tools from this period, together with chopping and plano-convex scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela.

It is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest; it has been estimated at around one million. The Timoto—Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields.

They also stored water in tanks. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops. Regional crops included potatoes and ullucos.

They spun vegetable fibers to weave into textiles and mats for housing. They are credited with having invented the arepa , a staple in Venezuelan cuisine.

After the conquest, the population dropped markedly, mainly through the spread of new infectious diseases from Europe. Great signs are these of the Terrestrial Paradise, for the site conforms to the opinion of the holy and wise theologians whom I have mentioned.

And likewise, the [other] signs conform very well, for I have never read or heard of such a large quantity of fresh water being inside and in such close proximity to salt water; the very mild temperateness also corroborates this; and if the water of which I speak does not proceed from Paradise then it is an even greater marvel, because I do not believe such a large and deep river has ever been known to exist in this world.

In the 16th century, Venezuela was contracted as a concession by the King of Spain to the German Welser banking family Klein-Venedig , — Native caciques leaders such as Guaicaipuro c.

In the 16th century, during the Spanish colonization, indigenous peoples such as many of the Mariches , themselves descendants of the Kalina, converted to Roman Catholicism.

Some of the resisting tribes or leaders are commemorated in place names, including Caracas, Chacao and Los Teques.

The early colonial settlements focused on the northern coast, [38] but in the midth century, the Spanish pushed farther inland along the Orinoco River.

Here, the Ye'kuana then known as the Makiritare organized serious resistance in and Spain's eastern Venezuelan settlements were incorporated into New Andalusia Province.

Administered by the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo from the early 16th century, most of Venezuela became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the early 18th century, and was then reorganized as an autonomous Captaincy General starting in The town of Caracas, founded in the central coastal region in , was well-placed to become a key location, being near the coastal port of La Guaira whilst itself being located in a valley in a mountain range, providing defensive strength against pirates and a more fertile and healthy climate.

After a series of unsuccessful uprisings, Venezuela, under the leadership of Francisco de Miranda , a Venezuelan marshal who had fought in the American Revolution and the French Revolution , declared independence as the First Republic of Venezuela on 5 July A devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in , together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros , helped bring down the republic.

The end of the French invasion of homeland Spain in allowed the preparation of a large expeditionary force to the American provinces under general Pablo Morillo , with the goal to regain the lost territory in Venezuela and New Granada.

This republic was short-lived as only two years later, during the Congress of Angostura of , the union of Venezuela with New Granada was decreed to form the Republic of Gran Colombia.

The colors of the Venezuelan flag are yellow, blue, and red: the yellow stands for land wealth, the blue for the sea that separates Venezuela from Spain, and the red for the blood shed by the heroes of independence.

Slavery in Venezuela was abolished in This culminated in the Federal War — , a civil war in which hundreds of thousands died in a country with a population of not much more than a million people.

In , a longstanding dispute with Great Britain about the territory of Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory, erupted into the Venezuela Crisis of The dispute became a diplomatic crisis when Venezuela's lobbyist, William L.

Scruggs , sought to argue that British behavior over the issue violated the United States' Monroe Doctrine of , and used his influence in Washington, D.

Then, U. A tribunal convened in Paris in to decide the issue and in awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.

Castro defaulted on Venezuela's considerable foreign debts and declined to pay compensation to foreigners caught up in Venezuela's civil wars.

This led to the Venezuela Crisis of — , in which Britain, Germany and Italy imposed a naval blockade of several months before international arbitration at the new Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague was agreed.

The discovery of massive oil deposits in Lake Maracaibo during World War I [58] proved to be pivotal for Venezuela and transformed the basis of its economy from a heavy dependence on agricultural exports.

It prompted an economic boom that lasted into the s; by , Venezuela's per capita gross domestic product was Latin America's highest.

He remained the most powerful man in Venezuela until his death in , although at times he ceded the presidency to others.

Angarita granted a range of reforms, including the legalization of all political parties. The expansion of the Venezuelan economy in this period was based on the indebtedness of the Venezuelan nation and that was one of the causes of the economic crisis in Venezuela in the s, [60] in which important projects such as the Urban Center El Recreo de Marcel Brauer on Avenida Casanova in Sabana Grande district were paralyzed.

It was an antecedent of the populist and paternalistic economic regime of the later democratic regimes.

The malaise over the debts of Venezuela reached the barracks and the national business. The two first parties would dominate the political landscape for four decades.

Most of these movements laid down their arms under Rafael Caldera 's first presidency — ; Caldera had won the election for COPEI, being the first time a party other than Democratic Action took the presidency through a democratic election.

The new democratic order had its antagonists. Betancourt suffered an attack planned by the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo in , and the leftists excluded from the Pact initiated an armed insurgency by organizing themselves in the Armed Forces of National Liberation, sponsored by the Communist Party and Fidel Castro.

At the same time, Betancourt promoted an international doctrine in which he only recognized elected governments by popular vote. The construction industry was revitalized through the "rediscount" of the Central Bank of Venezuela.

The Economic Recovery Plan fulfilled its objectives and in , Venezuela was able to return to an anchored exchange rate, with free purchase and sale of foreign currency.

This system lasted until the Venezuelan Black Friday of , although the model was already running out at the end of the seventies. For much of the period between and , the Venezuelan economy was characterized by its stability and sustained strength, factors that contributed decisively to being able to maintain a fixed exchange rate without major inconveniences.

The economic bonanza also had the characteristics of an economic bubble, but Venezuelans remember the "Ta barato, dame dos".

This led to massive increases in public spending, but also increases in external debts, which continued into the s when the collapse of oil prices during the s crippled the Venezuelan economy.

As the government started to devalue the currency in February to face its financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standards of living fell dramatically.

A number of failed economic policies and increasing corruption in government led to rising poverty and crime, worsening social indicators, and increased political instability.

Most of these works had been previously planned. This translated into sustained increases in the average real wage and an improvement in the condition of life.

The bolivar was devalued in February , unleashing a strong economic crisis, which hit investments in the most important financial centers of the Venezuelan capital, such as Sabana Grande.

In the government of Jaime Lusinchi — , an attempt was made to solve the problem. Unfortunately, the measures failed.

After a long period of accelerated economic expansion that lasts for six decades value of the stock of homes by families , an extreme higher value is reached towards From this historical value begins then a systematic fall that mounts to 26 hundred up to , and that configures a genuine unique experience in contemporary economic life.

Venezuela was preparing for the decentralization of its political system and the diversification of its economy, reducing the large size of the State.

The COPRE operated as an innovation mechanism, also by incorporating issues into the political agenda that were generally excluded from public deliberation by the main actors of the Venezuelan democratic system.

The most discussed topics were incorporated into the public agenda: decentralization, political participation, municipalization, judicial oder reforms and the role of the State in a new economic strategy.

Unfortunately, the social reality of the country made the changes difficult to apply. In the subsequent decade, the government was forced into several currency devaluations.

He was elected for another term in December and re-elected for a third term in October However, he was never sworn in for his third period, due to medical complications.

Poverty and inflation began to increase into the s. Chavez picked Maduro as his successor and appointed him vice president in Maduro was elected president in a shortened election in following Chavez's death.

The Democratic Unity Roundtable contested his election as fraud and as a violation of the constitution. Venezuela devalued its currency in February due to the rising shortages in the country, [83] [] which included those of milk, flour, and other necessities.

This led to an increase in malnutrition, especially among children. To counter the decrease in oil prices, the Venezuelan Government began taking more money from PDVSA , the state oil company, to meet budgets resulting in a lack of reinvestment in fields and employees.

In January , President Maduro decreed an "economic emergency" revealing the extent of the crisis and expanding his powers.

Close to riots had occurred in Venezuelan prisons by October , according to Una Ventana a la Libertad, an advocacy group for better prison conditions.

In , Venezuela experienced a constitutional crisis in the country. In March , opposition leaders branded President Nicolas Maduro a dictator after the Maduro-aligned Supreme Tribunal, which had been overturning most National Assembly decisions since the opposition took control of the body, took over the functions of the assembly, pushing a lengthy political standoff to new heights.

A month later, President Maduro announced the Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election and on 30 August , the Constituent National Assembly was elected into office and quickly stripped the National Assembly of its powers.

In December , President Maduro declared that leading opposition parties would be barred from taking part in following year's presidential vote after they boycotted mayoral polls.

Maduro won the election with In June , a detailed report by Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights documented enforced disappearances in Venezuela, specifically those that occurred during the years and During the period, around enforced disappearances of political detainees were reported.

Venezuelan security forces have subjected victims that have disappeared to illegal interrogation processes accompanied by torture and cruel or inhuman treatment.

Venezuela's Bolivarian regime has strategically used enforced disappearances to silence political opponents and other critical voices it deems a threat.

Venezuela is located in the north of South America; geologically, its mainland rests on the South American Plate. Most observers describe Venezuela in terms of four fairly well defined topographical regions: the Maracaibo lowlands in the northwest, the northern mountains extending in a broad east—west arc from the Colombian border along the northern Caribbean coast, the wide plains in central Venezuela, and the Guiana Highlands in the southeast.

The northern mountains are the extreme northeastern extensions of South America's Andes mountain range. To the south, the dissected Guiana Highlands contain the northern fringes of the Amazon Basin and Angel Falls , the world's highest waterfall, as well as tepuis , large table-like mountains.

The country's center is characterized by the llanos , which are extensive plains that stretch from the Colombian border in the far west to the Orinoco River delta in the east.

The Orinoco, with its rich alluvial soils , binds the largest and most important river system of the country; it originates in one of the largest watersheds in Latin America.

Venezuela borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Venezuela has territorial disputes with Guyana, formerly United Kingdom, largely concerning the Essequibo area and with Colombia concerning the Gulf of Venezuela.

In , after years of diplomatic attempts to solve the border dispute, the dispute over the Essequibo River border flared up. It was submitted to a "neutral" commission composed of British, American, and Russian representatives and without a direct Venezuelan representative , which in decided mostly against Venezuela's claim.

Venezuela's most significant natural resources are petroleum and natural gas, iron ore, gold, and other minerals. It also has large areas of arable land and water.

The precipitation level is lower in the period from August through April. These periods are referred to as hot-humid and cold-dry seasons.

Another characteristic of the climate is this variation throughout the country by the existence of a mountain range called "Cordillera de la Costa" which crosses the country from east to west.

The majority of the population lives in these mountains. The country falls into four horizontal temperature zones based primarily on elevation, having tropical, dry, temperate with dry winters, and polar alpine tundra climates, amongst others.

Venezuela lies within the Neotropical realm ; large portions of the country were originally covered by moist broadleaf forests.

One of 17 megadiverse countries, [] Venezuela's habitats range from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the south, via extensive llanos plains and Caribbean coast in the center and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

They include xeric scrublands in the extreme northwest and coastal mangrove forests in the northeast.

Animals of Venezuela are diverse and include manatees , three-toed sloth , two-toed sloth , Amazon river dolphins , and Orinoco Crocodiles , which have been reported to reach up to 6.

Venezuela hosts a total of 1, bird species, 48 of which are endemic. Notable mammals include the giant anteater , jaguar , and the capybara , the world's largest rodent.

More than half of Venezuelan avian and mammalian species are found in the Amazonian forests south of the Orinoco. For the fungi, an account was provided by R.

Dennis [] which has been digitized and the records made available on-line as part of the Cybertruffle Robigalia database.

Among plants of Venezuela, over 25, species of orchids are found in the country's cloud forest and lowland rainforest ecosystems.

The tops of the tepuis are also home to several carnivorous plants including the marsh pitcher plant, Heliamphora , and the insectivorous bromeliad, Brocchinia reducta.

Venezuela is among the top 20 countries in terms of endemism. Venezuela is one of the 10 most biodiverse countries on the planet, yet it is one of the leaders of deforestation due to economic and political factors.

Each year, roughly , hectares of forest are permanently destroyed and other areas are degraded by mining, oil extraction, and logging.

Between and , Venezuela officially lost 8. In the far south is a reserve for the country's Yanomami tribes. Covering 32, square miles 82, square kilometres , the area is off-limits to farmers, miners, and all non-Yanomami settlers.

The Venezuelan president is elected by a vote, with direct and universal suffrage , and is both head of state and head of government.

The term of office is six years, and as of 15 February a president may be re-elected an unlimited number of times.

The president appoints the vice president and decides the size and composition of the cabinet and makes appointments to it with the involvement of the legislature.

The president can ask the legislature to reconsider portions of laws he finds objectionable, but a simple parliamentary majority can override these objections.

The president may ask the National Assembly to pass an enabling act granting the ability to rule by decree in specified policy areas; this requires a two-thirds majority in the Assembly.

Since , six Venezuelan presidents have been granted such powers. The number of members is variable — each state and the Capital district elect three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.

For the — period the number of seats is The voting age in Venezuela is 18 and older. Voting is not compulsory. The legal system of Venezuela belongs to the Continental Law tradition.

The highest judicial body is the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia , whose magistrates are elected by parliament for a single two-year term.

Supreme Court president Luisa Estela Morales said in December that Venezuela had moved away from "a rigid division of powers" toward a system characterized by "intense coordination" between the branches of government.

Morales clarified that each power must be independent adding that "one thing is separation of powers and another one is division".

The parliamentary elections were held on 6 December to elect the deputies and three indigenous representatives of the National Assembly.

In , a series of protest and demonstrations began in Venezuela, attributed [ by whom? The government has accused the protest of being motivated by fascists , opposition leaders, capitalism and foreign influence, [] despite being largely peaceful.

President Maduro acknowledged PSUV defeat, but attributed the opposition's victory to an intensification of an economic war.

Despite this, Maduro said "I will stop by hook or by crook the opposition coming to power, whatever the costs, in any way". The first steps taken by PSUV and government were the substitution of the entire Supreme court a day after the Parliamentary Elections [] contrary to the Constitution of Venezuela, acclaimed as a fraud by the majority of the Venezuelan and international press.

Maduro said that "the Amnesty law approved by the Parliament will not be executed" and asked the Supreme Court to declare it unconstitutional before the law was known.

On 16 January , Maduro approved an unconstitutional economic emergency decree, [] relegating to his own figure the legislative and executive powers, while also holding judiciary power through the fraudulent designation of judges the day after the election on 6 December On 14 May , constitutional guarantees were in fact suspended when Maduro decreed the extension of the economic emergency decree for another 60 days and declared a State of Emergency, [] which is a clear violation of the Constitution of Venezuela [] in the Article th: "The approval of the extension of States of emergency corresponds to the National Assembly.

On 14 May , the Organization of American States was considering the application of the Inter-American Democratic Charter [] sanctions for non-compliance to its own constitution.

In March , the Venezuelan Supreme Court took over law making powers from the National Assembly [] but reversed its decision the following day. Throughout most of the 20th century, Venezuela maintained friendly relations with most Latin American and Western nations.

In , Venezuela was declared a national security threat by U. For example, Palestinian foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki declared in that Venezuela was his country's "most important ally".

Venezuela seeks alternative hemispheric integration via such proposals as the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas trade proposal and the newly launched Latin American television network teleSUR.

Venezuela is one of five nations in the world—along with Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, and Syria—to have recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Venezuela was a proponent of OAS 's decision to adopt its Anti-Corruption Convention [] and is actively working in the Mercosur trade bloc to push increased trade and energy integration.

Globally, it seeks a " multi-polar " world based on strengthened ties among undeveloped countries. It will take two years for the country to formally leave.

During this period, the country does not plan on participating in the OAS. Venezuela is involved in a long-standing disagreement about the control of the Guayana Esequiba area.

Venezuela may suffer a deterioration of its power in international affairs if the global transition to renewable energy is completed.

It includes over , men and women, under Article of the Constitution, in 5 components of Ground, Sea and Air. As of [update] , a further , soldiers were incorporated into a new branch, known as the Armed Reserve.

The president of Venezuela is the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. The main roles of the armed forces are to defend the sovereign national territory of Venezuela, airspace, and islands, fight against drug trafficking, to search and rescue and, in the case of a natural disaster, civil protection.

All male citizens of Venezuela have a constitutional duty to register for the military service at the age of 18, which is the age of majority in Venezuela.

In Venezuela, a person is murdered every 21 minutes. Venezuela is especially dangerous for foreign travelers and investors who are visiting.

The United States Department of State and the Government of Canada have warned foreign visitors that they may be subjected to robbery, kidnapping for a ransom or sale to terrorist organizations [] and murder, and that their own diplomatic travelers are required to travel in armored vehicles.

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